Saturday, 11 August 2012

ETL504 Choosing a Change Process Model to allay teacher concerns about a Web2.0 App

Assessment 1 Part B

The purpose of this paper (presentation) is to show how teacher concerns, towards a Web2.0 App., can be addressed through them experiencing stages in a change process model. The model experienced will be The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM). The CBAM is a change model in which relationships between users and the resource system of an innovation can be examined. (Donovan, 2007, p.267). In this presentation the users will be a small group of primary school teachers and the resource will be a Web 2.0 App. The App chosen will be a Blog. The teacher librarian (TL) will be the facilitator of the change.

Description of a Web2.0App
A Web 2.0 App is characterised by three elements: information sharing, user-cantered design and collaboration (Crotty, R. 2012). A Blog is a Web 2.0 App

"Blog" is an abbreviated version of "weblog," which is a term used to describe web sites that maintain an ongoing chronicle of information. It is a publishing tool that allows authors to quickly and easily self-publish text, artwork, links to other blogs or Web sites, and a whole array of other content. (Crie, 2006)

In education blogs have many educational benefits. Some of these are:
Blogs work well for students because they can be worked on at virtually any time, in any place with an Internet-enabled computer.  A class blog opens the opportunity for students to discuss topics outside of the classroom. Students have time to be reactive to one another and reflective.

Teachers can also bring together a group of knowledgeable individuals for a given unit of study for students to network and conference with on a blog.
Blogs can be effective forums for collaboration and discussion.

Summary of the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM)
The Concerns-Based Adoption Model, or CBAM, is a conceptual framework first proposed in 1973 by Hall, Wallace, and Dossett. It describes, explains, and predicts probable teacher concerns and behaviours throughout the school change process.

In today's new era of accountability in education, CBAM can help districts and schools respond to federal requirements for standards-based reform as well as fostering a culture of continuous improvement. (Intro)
The three diagnostic tools of the CBAM user system are the Stages of Concern (SoC), Levels of Use (LoU), and Innovation Configurations (IC). (Donovan, 2007, p.267). Stages of Concern (SoC) use a questionnaire to help identify and describe the concerns teachers have during the implementation process. They are a way of accessing information about people's attitudes, or reactions, or feelings about a new program or a new practice. (Hord , in CBAM Video SoC).  Levels of Use (LoU) use an interview protocol to assess the degree to which a teacher is using an innovation. Innovation Configurations (IC) is a tool for identifying and describing the various forms of an innovation that different teachers adopt. Intro what it does is to explicitly spell out what the new practice will look like when it is in operation in the classroom." (Hord in CBAM  Video IC Transcript.)

The first principal diagnostic dimension of CBAM is Stages of Concern.
There are seven different stages of feelings and perceptions that educators experience when they are implementing a new program or practice (SEDL)

The first three concerns are focused on self, the next concern is on the mastery of the task, and the last three concerns are around results and impact on others.
The second principal diagnostic dimension of CBAM is Levels of Use:

There are eight behavioural profiles that describe a different set of actions and behaviours that educators engage in as they become more familiar with and more skilled in using an innovation or adopting a change (SEDL)
The third principal diagnostic dimension of CBAM is Innovation Configurations.
Different ways an innovation may be implemented, shown along a continuum from ideal implementation or practice to least desirable practice

An Overview of a plan for implementation of Blogs
Stage of concern
Level of use
Innovation Configuration
(TL as change facilitator)
0. Non-Use
There is no action or involvement.
The teachers in the selected group are not familiar with blogs
Level 0
There is no awareness of any change taking place
Use a questionnaire to help identify and describe the concerns the focus group has during the implementation process.
Make the group aware of the characterisation of Web2.0 Apps through their three elements: information sharing, user-centred design and collaboration. Brainstorm if they know any. Refer to state guidelines and standards as to the expectation of the need to use Information Technology in a collaborative and interactive way. Explain that a Blog is a Web2.0 App. for the above reasons.
Level 1
Seeking information
Send out a description of Blogs and their educational benefits by e-mail and also place a hard copy in their staff ‘mailboxes. Ask the members to peruse the information and to highlight or record any insights or concerns. Encourage them to send questions to you via email or through mailbox.
0I. Orientation
There is a general interest and group members are taking an initiative to learn more about the innovation.
Provide workshops to share insights and to address the concerns from the previous literature. Provide opportunity for other members of staff, with previous experience with blogs, to come to the workshop.
Share state and national guidelines and acceptable use policies (AUP) regarding the use of school and other computer networks and the Internet.
Level 2
How will using it affect me?
Conduct demonstrations of setting up different blogs for different purposes. Provide time management on a personal basis.  Allocate varied times for each group member. Choose times that are convenient for group members.
II. Preparation
There are definite plans to begin participating with the innovation. The members are learning the processes and skills needed for successful application.
Model and practice with teaming strategies and form a consensus on area for group to focus. It could be on an interest level, for example, Recipes or on an educational level. Encourage the group members to blog on a regular basis.
Use begins
III. Mechanical
Early stages of application. Emphasis is on day to day use of the innovation with little reflection
Encourage study and research to deepen content knowledge about blogs.
Promote team members regular self-assessments of their teamwork
Level 3
How can I master the skills and fit it all in?
Provide suggestions for time management for blogging in the classroom.
Organise some release time to gather and organise materials and walk through procedures.
Provide logistical help and support
Review policies and guidelines pertaining to student access
Few or no changes are being made. There is limited though given to improving the use of the innovation.
Encourage further study and research to deepen content knowledge about blogs.
Take the necessary steps to inform parents of procedures and secure parental permission before using the blog in a participatory manner.
Determine that all students' AUPs are in place and up to date. Teach students safe, acceptable, and sensible behaviour as online authors and readers. Teach the non-posting rules of no complete names, e-mail accounts, or references to reveal location. Set clear expectations regarding tone, respect, and consequences.
Level 4
How can I refine it to have more impact?
Provide or organise professional development focused on areas where teachers want to enhance student learning. Remember to form a consensus on area for group to focus.
Provide discussion around suggestions for broadening students’ participation and motivation.
Changes are being made to the innovation to increase impact and consequences.
As a group develop and use joint instructional strategies.
Allow for group members to observe each other using the instructional strategies. Examine student work- are the using safe, acceptable, and sensible behaviour as online authors and readers.
Level 5
How can I relate what I am doing to what others are doing?
Organise opportunities for collaborative teaching and use of demonstration lessons.
V. Integration
Intentional efforts are being made to collaborate with others to have a combined impact.
Share blog activities and information across the school community.
Work with colleagues to further develop joint instructional practices
Level 6
I have some ideas about something that would work even better
Review the key elements of blogs.
Engage students in self-assessment of how well they are using blogs and what could they do to strengthen it.
VI. Renewal
Group members reflect on the innovation and investigate ways to make the innovation effective to achieve greater impact.
Provide consistent and regular support


Planned on-going support
In the book Taking Charge of Change (Hord, Rutherford, Huling-Austin, & Hall,1987), the authors propose that before change can happen in schools, teachers need to pass through several stages of concern. Only when teachers reach the top “impact” stages of concern will the innovation be implemented appropriately.
It can take a long time for the CBAM process to conclude, sometimes even years. Teachers will be at various levels of the model. At times various outside factors can prevent the initial target group from completing the change process. As new technologies are made available sometimes a Web2.0 App. might be superseded by something more user –friendly.

The initial focus group could be encouraged to collaborate with the TL in presenting the blog, using the CBAM they experienced, to another group of teachers that are at the lower levels of concern and use. As more teachers became confident they could then continue the process.

The TL could adapt the CBAM to another Web 2.0 App or another educational innovation.
The focus group could join a professional blog and share their knowledge with other teachers in other parts of the world. The TL is to continue to support focus group as well as new groups, through the use of the CBAM and its diagnostic tools of the Stages of Concern (SoC), Levels of Use (LoU), and Innovation Configurations (IC).

  1. Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) Video: Introduction to the CBAM  Retrieved from
  2. Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) Video: Innovation Configurations Retrieved from
  3. Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) Video: Levels of Use Retrieved from
  4. Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) Video: Stages of Concern Retrieved from
  5. Crie, M ((2006). Using Blogs to Integrate Technology in the Classroom. Retrieved from
  6. Crotty, R, (2012) ETL 504 Wiki Retrieved from
  7. Donovan, L., Hartley, K & Strudler, N. (Spring, 2007) Teacher Concerns During Initial Implementation of a One-to-One Laptop Initiative at Middle School Level. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39(3), 263-286. Retrieved from  

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